Topics for the botanical extraction industry

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Evaluation of Spinning Disk Reactor Technology for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals

This article describes a set of experiments that were performed to investigate the viability of implementing a Spinning Disk Reactor (SDR) to speed the production of pharmaceutical constituents.

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Developing Redcedar Essential Oil Market in Minnesota: Economic Opportunity for Rural Development?

This article examines the current market for Eastern Redcedar products, the availability of raw material in Minnesota, and the viability of developing industry based on Eastern Redcedar essential oil extraction. Download the review via PDF

Evaluating the Efficiency of Wicking Bed Irrigation Systems for Small-Scale Urban Agriculture

This study explored various irrigation designs with the goal of maximizing water use efficiency when growing tomato plants on a small scale.

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Spinning Disc Reactor – A novel processing machine for the food and chemical industry

An SDR is basically, a rotating disc, that can be heated or cooled, and is fed with one or more liquids at its center- unquote. What makes it attractive to food processing is its ability to efficiently mix materials, transfer heat, and transfer mass. Download the review via PDF

Osmotic Shock Review

Osmotic shock occurs when there is a difference in concentrations on either side of a cell membrane. This membrane tries to keep the concentration of ions inside the cell constant, but when the difference is high enough the building pressure from diffusion wins and the membrane will fail. There are two ways for this to occur, with a higher concentration of ions outside the membrane, or a higher concentration of ions inside the membrane. Download the review via PDF

Supercritical CO2 as Processing Solvent for the Recycling and Sample Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes

This article investigates the potential for Sub and Supercritical CO2 to be used to extract specific constituents of lithium ion batteries (LIB). Download the review via PDF

Extraction of Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Annatto seeds are the product of the Achiote tree, grown primarily in the southern hemisphere. They are small, bright red, and contain the pigments bixin and norbixin. Bixin and norbixin are carotenoids that vary in tone between yellow and red ... used in cheeses, sausages, meats and candies

There are three conventional means of extracting the pigments for use as natural colorants: vegetable oil extraction, alkaline solution and organic solvent extraction. Download the review via PDF

A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects

This study examined the effects of essential oil from legal ... hemp variety on the nervous system in 5 healthy volunteers. Download the review via PDF

Effect of Polar Cosolvents on Cocoa Butter Extraction using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Cocoa butter, the fats and oils present in cocoa nibs, is an important ingredient in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Download the review via PDF

Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

Many spices exhibit biologically and pharmacologically beneficial properties. One such herb is Oregano.

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Explosive Decompression Pretreatment: Nitrogen vs. Compressed Air

Lignocellulosic material, which composes most plant cell walls is a widely used source of biomass for energy production. Download the review via PDF

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Recent interest in the development of new extraction techniques is associated with the shortcomings of conventional techniques involving the extensive use of toxic organic solvents and high energy usage while providing low selectivity and low extraction yields. Download the review via PDF

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: A Solvent like no Other

This article discusses the benefits of replacing the widespread use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with the use of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) along with the challenges presented and explores recent attempts to improve the process. Download the review via PDF

Extraction of Caffeine from Robusta Coffee Husks Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Caffeine is a widely consumed stimulant throughout the world. It is known to have both positive effects: counteracting tiredness and increased alertness; and negative effects: causing increased heartrate and blood pressure. As such, it is intentionally added to some products while being removed from others. Download the review via PDF

Cannabinoid-Like Anti-Inflammatory Compounds from Flax

Flax is a Mediterranean plant that is already used widely for many industrial purposes, including as a source of fiber, seeds, and oil. Download the review via PDF

Hemp Profit Gets Real

40 acres yielded 80,000 of dried industrial hemp in Kentucky in 2015. 2016 cloned 200,000 plants in 7 days, planting 65 acres. Greenhouse propagation is necessary for female plants. Female plants produce flowers, main source of CB D (no money in male plants). Flower has 71-20 percent of total CB D, but entire plant has CB D, making overall yield critical to profit. 3,000 lb per acre of dried hemp in powder form goal for 2017. Farming method mimics commercial vegetable production (cucumber setter on top of raised beds, drip table beneath plastic mulching, with annual rye sown before hemp planting to reduce erosion and control weeds in 72 inch middles). Download the review via PDF

Altalo Grower Group Brings In $2,000,000 Harvest in 2016

Atalo Holdings, Inc. (industrial hemp) claimed $2 million payout to their Growers Group in 2016. Download the review via PDF

Hemp Production Tips

Oilseed, hybrid, and fiber are the types of industrial hemp. As a short day plant, hemp develops flowers when length of day is less than 12 hours. Earlier planting is best for more veg growth, for more robust plants for higher fiber yields and seeds. Hemp is male or female (dioecious), and male plants flower and die earlier. Grows best in well-aerated loam, loose soil, with high fertility and organic matter. Download the review via PDF

Centrifugal Liquid-Liquid Chromatography

This article compares the current state of technology relating to the many forms of chromatography as it relates to aqueous two-phase solvents (ATPS).

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Industrial Hemp: from seed to market

This informational pamphlet details the current state of the industrial hemp market with a specific eye towards the New York state market. Download the review via PDF

Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp

This Croatian study investigates the impact of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SCCO2) Extraction parameters on the production of hemp seed oil and compares the product to that of oil produced by the Soxhlet method and screw expeller pressing. Industrial hemp has a long history in Croatia having been used in a myriad of products, primarily including food and fiber products. Its recent use has seen a decline because of its association with Cannabis indica L. (marijuana) which is a controlled substance in many countries including the EU. Download the review via PDF

Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential

This article discusses the movement towards a renewed U.S. hemp industry and touches on the social, economic, and political considerations that are impacting its growth. Download the review via PDF

Ethanol Batch Extraction

The interest in the cannabis and hemp industry for fast, inexpensive extraction of botanical oils, has led to the increasing use of batch ethanol extraction. Simply put, botanicals are put into a tank, along with ethanol, which dissolves the plant cells to release the oil. Wait too long, and it releases the green component, chlorophyll. Download the review via PDF

Waste Heat to Power

The interest in utilizing waste heat (or low grade heat) for power generation has been around since the industrial age, but is gaining steam with the massive amounts of waste heat that is being generated by cloud (server farms), industrial, and potential solar sources. The inherency of low-grade heat to power generation is the low efficiencies and return on investment. Unless you are paying more than $.50 per kwh for your power, the average 6-10 percent power generation efficiency will have a very long (if any) payback. This poor return on investment is why ORC power is not prevalent in the USA. Download the review via PDF

FDA approves first drug comprised of an active ingredient derived from marijuana

On June 25th, 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first medical use of Cannabidiol (CB D). Download the review via PDF

Water as a Green Solvent

Historically lavender flower essential oil has been collected via distillation. The flowers are exposed to steam or boiling water which strips the oils from the plant. The essential oils are then separated from the water based on their relative densities. Download the review via PDF

Using Water as a Solvent for Green Chemistry

This article seeks to describe the benefits of using water as the primary solvent in chemical processes due to its environmentally benign impact and its many unique properties. Download the review via PDF

Process Intensification for Green Chemistry

As environmental regulations become more stringent there is an ever-growing need for chemical processes that produce less environmental impact. Download the review via PDF

Process Intensification: A Study of Micromixing

The extensive article under review is a doctoral thesis study conducted to systematically investigate the micro and macro mixing of thin films created by a spinning disc reactor (SDR). Download the review via PDF

Cannabis Oil: Chemical Evaluation of an Upcoming Cannabis-based Medicine

Cannabis oils, including, quote – the most well-known example of such a product called Simpson oil – unquote, are becoming popular with cancer patients who are self-medicating. Download the review via PDF

Cannabis Roots: A Traditional Therapy with Future Potential

This article investigates the history of medicinal Cannabis root use along with its modern medicinal potential. Download the review via PDF

Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Cannabinoids

Extraction of pant compounds to isolate beneficial components has been occurring for hundreds of years. Reportedly, Cannabis we first extracted in 1840. Phenols and flavonoids are the most desirable compounds present in the plant.

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