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Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antioxidant in Sports Science

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Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antioxidant in Sports Science ( molecular-hydrogen-as-novel-antioxidant-sports-science )

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Hindawi Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume 2020, Article ID 2328768, 7 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/2328768 Review Article Application of Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antioxidant in Sports Science Takuji Kawamura ,1 Kazuhiko Higashida,2 and Isao Muraoka1 1Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192, Japan 2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500, Hassaka-cho, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533, Japan Correspondence should be addressed to Takuji Kawamura; tkawamura@aoni.waseda.jp Received 28 September 2019; Revised 9 December 2019; Accepted 19 December 2019; Published 17 January 2020 Academic Editor: Ana Lloret Copyright © 2020 Takuji Kawamura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and minimal molecule with high flammability. Although H2 has been thought to be an inert gas in living bodies for many years, an animal study reported that inhalation of H2 gas decreased oxidative stress and suppressed brain injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion injury due to its antioxidant action. Since then, the antioxidant action of H2 has attracted considerable attention and many studies have reported on its benefits. Most studies have reported the effects of H2 on diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cerebral infarction, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, little is known regarding its effects on healthy subjects and exercise. Thus far, including our study, only 6 studies have explored the effect of H2 on exercise. H2 is the smallest molecule and therefore can easily penetrate the cellular membrane and rapidly diffuse into organelles. H2 is thought to be able to selectively reduce hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite and does not affect physiologically reactive species. H2 can be supplied to the body through multiple routes of administration, such as oral intake of H2 water and H2 bathing. Therefore, H2 may be a potential alternative strategy for conventional exogenous antioxidant interventions in sports science. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence regarding the effects of H2 intake on changes in physiological and biochemical parameters, centering on exercise-induced oxidative stress, for each intake method. Furthermore, this review highlights possible future directions in this area of research. 1. Introduction Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and minimal molecule with high flammability [1]. Most mammals, including humans, do not synthesize hydroge- nase, which is a catalyst for the activation of H2 [2], and therefore, H2 has long been considered to be an inert gas in mammalian cells. However, in 2007, a pioneer study reported that H2 can selectively reduce hydroxyl radicals (⋅OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) in cultured cells but not other reac- suggested that H2 can prevent the progression of various dis- eases [1, 4–8]. As such, research regarding the medical appli- cations of H2 is steadily progressing, with several clinical studies already started [1, 4–8]. In sports science, there is limited research regarding the antioxidant effect of H2 on exercise-induced oxidative stress. Unlike conventional antioxidants, H2 is a gas molecule and as such it is believed to have several advantages for application in sports science [4, 6, 9] (Table 1). Firstly, H2 is the smallest molecule and thus can penetrate the cellular membrane and rapidly diffuse into organelles (e.g., mitochondria). Secondly, H2 is thought to have no effect on physiologically reactive species -(e.g., H2O2), as it can selectively reduce ⋅OH and ONOO . Finally, H2 can be supplied to the body through multiple routes of administration, such as oral intake of H2 water, H2 bathing, intravenous infusion of H2-saline, and inhalation of H2 gas. In addition to these advantages, H2 tive species, such as superoxide (O -⋅), hydrogen peroxide ⋅2 (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO ) [3]. The study also demon- strated that inhalation of H2 gas markedly decreased oxida- tive stress and suppressed brain injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats [3]. Since the study was carried out, the amount of research on the antioxidant and therapeu- tic effects of H2 has increased rapidly. Moreover, studies have

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