Molecular Hydrogen as an Antioxidant in exercise

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Molecular Hydrogen as an Antioxidant in exercise ( molecular-hydrogen-as-an-antioxidant-exercise )

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Nutrients 2021, 13, 459 2 of 14 In addition to these advantages, H2 can be used with minimal side effects as it is excreted by exhaling. If H2 is absorbed well in the intestinal tract, it will lead to an increase in bicarbonate ion (HCO3−) as well as a reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Aoki et al. (2012) initially reported that in trained young men, an oral intake of H2 water suppressed the elevation of blood lactate concentrations and reduced peak torque during exercise [7]. Thus, H2 water leads to a strong buffering capacity to glucose metabolism and/or exercise performance. We, thus, hypothesized that the intake of H2 would promote buffering lactic acid and lead to higher pH, which would induce delayed metabolic acidosis and extend exercise performance. The prior studies mostly used H2 in gas or infused water forms, but we developed a new chemical engineering technique for hydro-calcium powder (HCP) that uses extracted calcium to absorb highly concentrated hydrogen molecules (International Patent No. 4,472,022). . In investigations of the relationship between muscle O2 delivery (QO2) and oxygen . uptake ( VO2), time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS) was able to resolve the absolute values of [heme] chromophores [8] and provided improved mechanistic .. insights into the effects of HCP on muscle QO2-to- VO2 relationships. It is also presently unclear whether dietary HCP supplementation might alter the muscle spatial heterogeneity .. in muscle deoxygenation (deoxy[Hb + Mb]) kinetics (and, by extension, QO2-to- VO2 matching) that was observed during cycling exercise [8–15]. HCP may increase HCO3− and delay metabolic acidosis. As described above, since HCP causes opposite effects at the same time, the extent of change that HCP causes in the muscle spatial heterogeneity in deoxy[Hb + Mb] kinetics at different muscle sites is not yet known. The aforementioned advantages of H2 use are expected to be a potential scavenger of superoxide anions, as it was reported that the augmented hypoxic carotid body sen- sory response was abolished in a group of rats pretreated with a superoxide dismutase mimetic [16,17]. Wilkerson et al. also demonstrated that the intravenous administration of a superoxide anion scavenger to anesthetized, vagotomized, and ventilated rats before their exposure to acute hypoxia abolished the long-term facilitation (LTF) of phrenic ner- vous activity [18]. Given these findings in animals, one of the possibilities is that ROS are downregulated by the administration of molecular hydrogen, resulting in hypoven- tilation and blood hypercapnia. We, therefore, hypothesized that the administration of a strong antioxidant of molecular hydrogen would reduce the magnitude of ventilatory and deoxy[Hb + Mb] responses before and during exhaustive exercise in humans. To test these contradictory hypotheses, we conducted the present study to determine whether an HCP supplement causes different responses to muscle deoxy[Hb + Mb] and the responses of pulmonary ventilatory and blood gas values at both rest and incremental exercise compared to placebo. 2. Subjects and Methods 2.1. Subjects Eighteen healthy males with no cardiac, ventilatory, gas exchange, or musculoskeletal disorders participated. Their mean ± SD values were age, 21 ± 1 years old; height, 174.0 ± 4.4 cm; and body weight, 66.6 ± 6.3 kg. Written, informed consent was obtained from all subjects after a detailed explanation of all procedures, the purpose of the study, the possible risks, and the benefits of participation. Our study conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki, and the ethical committee of Doshisha University approved all study procedures (No. 18012). 2.2. Supplements Each subject was examined twice in a crossover, double-blind manner and given four capsules/day for three days of either H2-rich calcium powder (HCP) supplements (ENAGEGATE, Tokyo) or calcium powder as a placebo (ENAGEGATE). The capsules for both HCP and placebo were identical, with a clear outer shell and white powder fill inside. Each capsule weighted approx. 633 mg, with 375 mg of either HCP or only calcium powder

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