Molecular Hydrogen as an Antioxidant in exercise

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nutrients Article Application of Molecular Hydrogen as an Antioxidant in Responses to Ventilatory and Ergogenic Adjustments during Incremental Exercise in Humans Ahad Abdulkarim D. Alharbi 1, Naoyuki Ebine 1, Satoshi Nakae 2, Tatsuya Hojo 1 and Yoshiyuki Fukuoka 1,* 􏰁􏰂􏰃 􏰅􏰆􏰇 􏰈􏰉􏰊􏰋􏰌􏰂􏰍 Citation: Alharbi,A.A.D.;Ebine,N.; Nakae, S.; Hojo, T.; Fukuoka, Y. Application of Molecular Hydrogen as an Antioxidant in Responses to Ventilatory and Ergogenic Adjustments during Incremental Exercise in Humans. Nutrients 2021, 13, 459. nu13020459 Academic Editor: Fabio Galvano Received: 22 December 2020 Accepted: 26 January 2021 Published: 30 January 2021 at rest and 120-, 200-, and 240-watt work rates. At rest, the HCP group had significantly lower 1 2 * Correspondence:; Tel.: +81-774-65-7530; Fax: +81-774-65-6029 Abstract: We investigated effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) supplementation on acid-base status, pulmonary gas exchange responses, and local muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise. Eighteen healthy, trained subjects in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design received H2-rich calcium powder (HCP) (1500 mg/day, containing 2.544 μg/day of H2) or H2-depleted placebo (1500 mg/day) for three consecutive days. They performed cycling incremental exercise starting at 20-watt work rate, increasing by 20 watts/2 min until exhaustion. Breath-by-breath pulmonary venti- .. lation (VE) and CO2 output (VCO2) were measured and muscle deoxygenation (deoxy[Hb + Mb]) was determined via time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy in the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Blood gases’ pH, lactate, and bicarbonate (HCO3−) concentrations were measured Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0394, Japan; (A.A.D.A.); (N.E.); (T.H.) Division of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531, Japan; V. , V. CO , and higher HCO −, partial pressures of CO (PCO ) versus placebo. During exercise, E2322. Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- iations. Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/). a significant pH decrease and greater HCO3 − continued until 240-watt workload in HCP. The. VE was significantly lower in HCP versus placebo, but HCP did not affect the gas exchange status of VCO2 or oxygen uptake (V. O2). HCP increased absolute values of deoxy[Hb + Mb] at the RF but not VL. Thus, HCP-induced hypoventilation would lead to lower pH and secondarily impaired balance between O2 delivery and utilization in the local RF during exercise, suggesting that HCP supplementation, which increases the at-rest antioxidant potential, affects the lower ventilation and pH status during incremental exercise. HPC induced a significantly lower O2 delivery/utilization ratio in the RF but not the VL, which may be because these regions possess inherently different vascular/metabolic control properties, perhaps related to fiber-type composition. Keywords: hydrogen supplement; acid status; muscle deoxygenation; ventilation; incremental exercise 1. Introduction Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and minimal molecule with high flammability [1]. Most mammals, including humans, do not synthesize hydro- genase, which is a catalyst for the activation of H2 [2]. In sports science, there is limited research regarding the antioxidant effect of H2 on exercise-induced oxidative stress. Unlike conventional antioxidants, H2 is a gas molecule and as such it is believed to have several advantages for application in sports science [3–5]. H2 is the smallest molecule and thus can penetrate the cellular membrane and rapidly diffuse into organelles (e.g., mitochondria). H2 is thought to have no effect on physiologically reactive species (e.g., H2O2), as it can selectively reduce •OH and ONOO− [6]. In addition, H2 can be supplied to the body through multiple routes of administration, such as the oral intake of H2 water, H2 bathing, an intravenous infusion of H2 saline, and the inhalation of H2 gas. Nutrients 2021, 13, 459.

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