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hydrogen-rich water for improvements of mood, anxiety, nerve function

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hydrogen-rich water for improvements of mood, anxiety, nerve function ( hydrogen-rich-water-improvements-mood-anxiety-nerve-function )

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brain and body indicates actions both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previous clinical studies have shown that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) reduces concentrations of markers of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome,5,6 improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes,7 improves mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with mitochon- drial myopathies, and reduces inflammatory processes in patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis.8 In an- other study, exercise-induced declines in muscle function among elite athletes were also improved by administering HRW.9 Although such findings suggest that HRW may help alleviate symptoms of several diseases and increase the physical performance of athletes, the effects of pro- longed HRW ingestion on the QOL of individuals in the general population remain unknown. Some reports have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with QOL in patients with chronic obstruc- tive pulmonary disease and cervical cancer.10,11 During oncological treatment among patients with cervical cancer, antioxidant supplementation was found to be effective in improving QOL.11 In addition, Kang et al.12 reported that treatment with HRW for patients receiving radiotherapy for liver tumors decreased oxidative stress and improved QOL. Although the association between oxidative stress and QOL in healthy individuals is still unclear, aging, job stress, and cognitive load over the course of several hours in healthy individuals have also been found to induce increases in oxidative stress,13-16 suggesting that preventing the accumulation of oxida- tive stress caused by daily stress and daily work may contribute to the maintenance of QOL and amelioration of the effects of aging. Continuous HRW intake might therefore be expected to reduce accumulation of oxida- tive stress, thus helping to prevent decreases in QOL. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of drinking 600 mL of HRW per day for 4 weeks on the QOL of adult volunteers using questionnaires for sleep, fatigue, mood, anxiety, and depression, an autonomic function test, and a higher cognitive function test. subjects and Methods subjects Thirty-one adult volunteers between 20 and 49 years old participated in this double-blinded, randomized, placebo- controlled study with a two-way crossover design. Exclu- sion criteria comprised: history of chronic illness; chronic medication or use of supplemental vitamins; employment in shift work; pregnancy; body mass index ≤ 17 or ≥ 29 kg/m2; food allergy; history of smoking; or history of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (≥ 60 g/day). Shift workers were excluded because the water was administered at breakfast and dinner, the timings of which are irregular among shift workers. In addition, the mental and physical conditions of shift workers can be greatly affected by the shift schedule for the preceding 2 days, which may impact the results obtained from the questionnaires used in this study. Before each experiment, participants were asked to refrain from drinking alcohol, since drinking excessive amounts of alcohol carries significant risks of fluctuations in physical condition. All experiments were conducted in compliance with national legislation and the Code of Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects of the World Medical Association (the Declaration of Hel- sinki) and registered to the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (No. UMIN000022382). The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Osaka City University Center for Health Science Innovation (OCU-CHSI-IRB No. 4), and all participants provided written informed consent for participation in the study. study design We used a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with a two-way crossover design, as summarized in Figure 1. After admission to the study, participants were randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive HRW in an aluminum pouch (0.8–1.2 ppm of hydrogen, 300 mL/pouch; Melodian Corporation, Yao, Japan) or placebo water (PLW), repre- senting mineral water from the same source (i.e., same components without hydrogen) in an aluminum pouch (0 ppm of hydrogen, 300 mL/pouch; Melodian Corpora- Figure 1: Time course of the experiments. Note: Participants were randomly divided into two study groups. The experiment consisted of 4 weeks of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) administration or placebo water (PLW) administration, a 4-week washout period, and then another 4 weeks of PLW administration or HRW administration. Before (pre) and after (post) each period of HRW or PLW administration, subjective and objective measurements for quality of life were obtained, such as results for sleep, mood, anxiety, feelings of depression, autonomic nerve function, and cognitive function. Mizuno et al. / Med Gas Res www.medgasres.com 248 Medical Gas Research ¦ December ¦ Volume 7 ¦ Issue 4

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