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hydrogen-rich water on the antioxidant activity soccer players

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Sha et al. / Med Gas Res intestinal flora is directly related to oxidative stress.13,14 The results of human experiments on athletes have shown that a greater exercise intensity results in increased oxidative stress in the body and, thus, a higher incidence of gastrointestinal stress symptoms. Therefore, in the training process, athletes should drink a sufficient amount of selective antioxidant hydrogen-rich water to regulate their gut flora, which might have a protective effect on the gastrointestinal tract and reduce stress reactions. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS Participants and grouping Thirty-eight juvenile female football players from the Su- zhou Sports School showing a healthy status and absence of sports injury, without any obvious food preference, and with no significant reported intake of nutritional supplements and antibiotics for 3 months were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (n = 10) and the hydrogen-rich water treatment group (n = 28) (Figure 1). Written informed consent was obtained from each participant prior to admission to the protocol, and the study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the Suzhou Sports School (approved number: SSS-EC150903). This study follows the Consolidated Stan- dards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. During the experiment, the athletes in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group drank hydrogen-rich water in an amount equivalent to the amount of normal water they had previously consumed daily, while athletes in the control group continued to drink standard water in amounts consistent with their previous habits. The experiment lasted for 2 months. The basic information of the subjects is shown in Table 1. Sample collection During the experiment, the athletes followed their previous dietary and resting regimes and other aspects of their normal daily routine. The training content, exercise intensity, fre- quency of exercise, and other parameters were consistent with the routine training regimen of the athletes. Blood sample test We collected 5 mL samples of venous blood (fasting) from all 38 athletes at a predetermined time in the morning, and 100 μL of whole blood was sampled for the measurement of haematological parameters in a blood cell analyser. The remaining blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 × g for 5 minutes. The serum samples were then collected and ana- lysed with an automatic biochemical analysis apparatus to determine hemoglobin (HGB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine kinase (CK). Then, the serum samples were analysed for oxidative response indices (malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and inflammatory indices (interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of gut flora samples Faecal flora samples were collected from all 38 athletes ac- cording to the specifications for stool sampling and stored at –80°C. The subsequent DNA sample extraction and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis were performed with the assistance of the Novagene Genomics Institute. Statistical analysis SPSS 19.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was used for sta- tistical analysis. The results were expressed as the mean ± SD. Significant differences between the two groups were analysed with repeated measured one-way analysis of variance, and the significance level was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS Effects of long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on routine indices of juvenile female football players Hemoglobin After 4 weeks, HGB decreased from 134.3 ± 12.95 g/L to 124.00 ± 17.75 g/L in the control group, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group decreased from 138.74 ± 9.38 g/L to 129.59 ± 8.57 g/L. After 8 weeks, HGB increased from 124.00 ± 17.75 g/L to 131.6 ± 25.31 g/L in the control group, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group increased from 129.59 ± 8.57 g/L to 139.89 ± 7.02 g/L (Fig- ure 2A). The increasing trend and amplitude of HGB were more significant in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group (P = 0.032). Blood urea nitrogen After 4 weeks, the level of BUN increased from 4.73 ± 0.88 to 4.83 ± 0.81 mM in the control group, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treatment group changed from 5.19 ± 0.85 to 5.17 ± 1.03 mM. After 8 weeks, the level of BUN in the control group continued to increase, from 4.83 ± 0.81 to 5.29 ± 0.97 mM, while that in the hydrogen-rich water treat- Control group (n = 10) Keep ordinary water dringing as usual Hydrogen-rich water treatmennt group (n = 10) Keep drinking hydrogen-rich water 1.5–2 L per day Sample collection before hydrogen-rich water treatment Hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, creatine kinase Sample collection after 4 weeks hydrogen-rich water treatment Sample collection after 8 weeks hydrogen-rich water treatment Figure 1: Trial flow chart. Interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity 16S rDNA sequencing of gut flora sample Table 1: Characteristics of all subjects Characteristics Age (year) Height (cm) Body weight (kg) Training period (year) Control group (n = 10) 13.7±1.06 159.1±5.51 48.97±4.56 3.4±1.51 Hydrogen-rich water treatment group (n = 28) 12.18±0.86 149.32±8.69 40.15±7.56 1.21±0.6 Note: Data as expressed as the mean ± SD. 136 Medical Gas Research ¦ December ¦ Volume 8 ¦ Issue 4 www.medgasres.com

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