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hydrogen-rich water on the antioxidant activity soccer players

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RESEARCH ARTICLE Effects of the long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on the antioxidant activity and the gut flora in female juvenile soccer players from Suzhou, China Ji-Bin Sha1, 2, Shuang-Shuang Zhang1, 6, Yi-Ming Lu1, Wen-Jing Gong1, Xiao-Ping Jiang3, Jian-Jun Wang3, Tong-Ling Qiao4, Hong-Hong Zhang4, Min-Qian Zhao3, Da-Peng Wang3, Hua Xia4, Zhong-Wei Li5, Jian-Liang Chen5, Lin Zhang6, *, Cheng-Gang Zhang1, * 1 Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Cognitive and Mental Health Research Center, Beijing, China 2 School of Sports and Health, Shandong Sports University, Jinan, Shandong Province, China 3 Suzhou Sports School, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China 4 Suzhou Research Institute of Sports Science, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China 5 Suzhou New Chengshi Health Management Co., Ltd., Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China 6 School of Sports Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China *Correspondence to: Cheng-Gang Zhang, PhD, zhangcg@bmi.ac.cn; Lin Zhang, PhD, zhanglin001@suda.edu.cn. orcid: 0000-0002-4521-3304 (Cheng-Gang Zhang) Expending a considerable amount of physical energy inevitably leads to fatigue during both training and competition in football. An increas- ing number of experimental findings have confirmed the relationship between the generation and clearance of free radicals, fatigue, and exercise injury. Recently, hydrogen was identified as a new selective antioxidant with potential beneficial applications in sports. The present study evaluated the effect of 2-month consumption of hydrogen-rich water on the gut flora in juvenile female soccer players from Suzhou. As demonstrated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of stool samples, the consumption of hydrogen- rich water for two months significantly reduced serum malondialdehyde, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α levels; then significantly increased serum superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity levels and haemoglobin levels of whole blood. Furthermore, the consumption of hydrogen-rich water improved the diversity and abundance of the gut flora in athletes. All examined indices, including the shannon, sobs, ace, and chao indices, were higher in the control group than those proposed to result from hydrogen-rich water consumption prior to the trial, but these indices were all reversed and were higher than those in the controls after the 2-month intervention. Nevertheless, there were some differences in the gut flora components of these two groups before the trial, whereas there were no significant changes in the gut flora composition during the trial period. Thus, the consumption of hydrogen-rich water for two months might play a role modulating in the gut flora of athletes based on its selective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the Suzhou Sports School (approved number: SSS-EC150903). Key words: hydrogen-rich water; anti-oxidant; anti-inflammatory; gut flora; diversity; soccer player; Suzhou doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.248263 How to cite this article: Sha JB, Zhang SS, Lu YM, Gong WJ, Jiang XP, Wang JJ, Qiao TL, Zhang HH, Zhao MQ, Wang DP, Xia H, Li ZW, Chen JL, Zhang L, Zhang CG. Effects of the long-term consumption of hydrogen-rich water on the antioxidant activity and the gut flora in female juvenile soccer players from Suzhou, China. Med Gas Res. 2018;8(4):135-143. Funding: The study was supported by the National Basic Research Project of China (973 Program), No. 2012CB518200 (to ZCG), the Gen- eral Program of the Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 81371232, 81573251 (to ZCG), and the Special Key Programs for Science and Technology of China, No. 2012ZX09102301-016 and 2014ZX09J14107-05B (to ZCG). Abstract INTRODUCTION A number of studies have confirmed that the occurrence of exercise-induced fatigue is closely related to the level of oxidative stress in the body.1,2 The lipid peroxidative damage caused by the accumulation of free radicals in the body and the corresponding chain reaction are considered important factors responsible for decreased function of the body.3-5 The antioxidant capacity of professional athletes is much higher than that of ordinary people, and athletes develop a greater ability to withstand the accumulation of free radicals and oxidative damage generated in sports.6 However, there are still many problems regarding protection against and al- leviation and removal of the oxidative stress reaction induced by free radical accumulation in the aftermath of exercise and sports. Currently, the effects of antioxidants used in exercise practice vary, and studies have indicated that some of these substances may induce more significant skeletal muscle injury in athletes.7-9 Therefore, the search for safe and effective selec- tive antioxidants has become an important research endeavour. The selective antioxidant activity of hydrogen was first reported in 2007 by Ohsawa et al.10 Thereafter, a signifi- cant number of studies confirmed that hydrogen-rich water, prepared by dissolving hydrogen in water, shows selective antioxidant activity. Currently, sports science researchers are paying increasing attention to the selective antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects of hydrogen and its regulation of the alkalinizing environment of the body.11,12 The beneficial protective effect of hydrogen-rich water has gradu- ally been confirmed in both animal and human experiments. The human symbiotic gut flora, considered the body’s “second genome”, has significant effects on human health.11,12 In recent years, studies have confirmed that imbalance of the © 2019 Medical Gas Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 135

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