Hydrogen: A Novel Option in Human Disease Treatment

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Hindawi Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume 2020, Article ID 8384742, 17 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8384742 Review Article Hydrogen: A Novel Option in Human Disease Treatment Mengling Yang ,1 Yinmiao Dong ,1 Qingnan He ,1 Ping Zhu ,2 Quan Zhuang ,3 Jie Shen ,1 Xueyan Zhang ,4 and Mingyi Zhao 1 1Department of Pediatrics, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410013, China 2Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510100, China 3Transplantation Center of the 3rd Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410013, China 4Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410013, China Correspondence should be addressed to Mingyi Zhao; 36163773@qq.com Received 21 March 2020; Revised 6 June 2020; Accepted 13 July 2020; Published 8 September 2020 Academic Editor: Luciano Saso Copyright © 2020 Mengling Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. H2 has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ability in many clinical trials, and its application is recommended in the latest Chinese novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) treatment guidelines. Clinical experiments have revealed the surprising finding that H2 gas may protect the lungs and extrapulmonary organs from pathological stimuli in NCP patients. The potential mechanisms underlying the action of H2 gas are not clear. H2 gas may regulate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, mitochondrial energy metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, the immune system, and cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and circadian clock, among others) and has therapeutic potential for many systemic diseases. This paper reviews the basic research and the latest clinical applications of H2 gas in multiorgan system diseases to establish strategies for the clinical treatment for various diseases. 1. Introduction Molecular hydrogen (H2) is the lightest chemical element in the earth’s atmosphere. H2 is often mixed in gas cylinders for deep-sea divers to breathe, to prevent decompression and nitrogen sickness [1]. In mammals, H2 is spontaneously produced by intestinal bacteria in the process of anaerobic metabolism to produce energy and is enzymatically catabo- lized by hydrogenases to provide electrons. Therapeutic applications of H2 were first described in 1975. Dole et al. reported that hyperbaric hydrogen caused marked regression of tumors in mice with skin squamous carcinoma [2]. However, hyperbaric H2 is not a clinically fea- sible option, and H2 is a physiologically inert gas that seems not to react with any active substances, including oxygen gas, in mammalian cells. Thus, H2 was perceived as being nonfunctional and was disregarded clinically. In 2007, the potential therapeutic benefits of H2 were described. Ohsawa et al. discovered that H2 has selective antioxidant properties that protect the brain against ische- mia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and stroke by specifically neutralizing hydroxyl radicals (⋅OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) but not superoxide anion radical (⋅O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO) [3]. The report gen- erated worldwide attention and thrust H2 into the spotlight of therapeutic medical gas research. Many studies using cellular, animal, and clinical experiments in a variety of bio- medical fields have explored the therapeutic and preventive effects of H2. The collective data have indicated that H2 is an important pathophysiological regulatory factor with anti- oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects on cells and organs [4–6]. It is so convenient to use that H2 can be easily administered in various ways, including inhala- tion, injection of H2-rich saline (HRS), drinking H2-rich

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