Hydrogen Gas in Cancer Treatment

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Hydrogen Gas in Cancer Treatment ( hydrogen-gas-cancer-treatment )

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Edited by: Nelson Shu-Sang Yee, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, United States Reviewed by: Leo E. Otterbein, Beth Israelv Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, United States Paolo Armando Gagliardi, University of Bern, Switzerland *Correspondence: Jin Zhou zhou-jin-2008@163.com Kang Peng kds978@163.com † These authors share co-first authorship Specialty section: This article was submitted to Cancer Molecular Targets and Therapeutics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Oncology Received: 02 May 2019 Accepted: 15 July 2019 Published: 06 August 2019 Citation: Li S, Liao R, Sheng X, Luo X, Zhang X, Wen X, Zhou J and Peng K (2019) Hydrogen Gas in Cancer Treatment. Front. Oncol. 9:696. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2019.00696 REVIEW published: 06 August 2019 doi: 10.3389/fonc.2019.00696 Hydrogen Gas in Cancer Treatment Sai Li1†, Rongrong Liao2†, Xiaoyan Sheng2†, Xiaojun Luo3, Xin Zhang1, Xiaomin Wen3, Jin Zhou 2* and Kang Peng 1,3* 1 Department of Pharmacy, Integrated Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, 2 Nursing Department, Integrated Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, 3 The Centre of Preventive Treatment of Disease, Integrated Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China Gas signaling molecules (GSMs), composed of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc., play critical roles in regulating signal transduction and cellular homeostasis. Interestingly, through various administrations, these molecules also exhibit potential in cancer treatment. Recently, hydrogen gas (formula: H2) emerges as another GSM which possesses multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammation, anti-reactive oxygen species, and anti-cancer. Growing evidence has shown that hydrogen gas can either alleviate the side effects caused by conventional chemotherapeutics, or suppress the growth of cancer cells and xenograft tumor, suggesting its broad potent application in clinical therapy. In the current review, we summarize these studies and discuss the underlying mechanisms. The application of hydrogen gas in cancer treatment is still in its nascent stage, further mechanistic study and the development of portable instruments are warranted. Keywords: hydrogen gas, ROS, inflammation, combination, anti-cancer INTRODUCTION Gaseous signaling molecules (GSMs) refer to a group of gaseous molecules, such as oxygen (1), nitric oxide (2), carbon monoxide (3), hydrogen sulfide (4), sulfur dioxide (5, 6), ethylene (7, 8), etc. These gaseous molecules possess multiple critical functions in regulating cell biology in vivo via signal transduction (9). More importantly, certain GSMs could serve as therapeutic agents in primary cancer, as well as in multidrug-resistant cancer treatment when used by directly or certain pharmaceutical formulations (9–13). In addition, some of these GSMs can be generated in body via different bacteria or enzymes, such as nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, indicating that they are more compatible molecules that may exhibit less adverse effects compared with conventional chemotherapeutics (9, 14, 15). Recently, hydrogen gas has been recognized as another important GSM in biology, exhibiting appealing potential in health care for its role in preventing cell injury from various attacking (16–19). With the formula of H2, hydrogen gas is the lightest molecule in the nature which only accounts for about 0.5 parts per million (ppm) of all the gas. Naturally, hydrogen gas is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, highly combustible gas which may form explosive mixtures with air in concentrations from 4 to 74% that can be triggered by spark, heat, or sunlight. Hydrogen gas can be generated in small amount by hydrogenase of certain members of the human gastrointestinal tract microbiota from unabsorbed carbohydrates in the intestine through degradation and metabolism (20, 21), which then is partially diffused into blood flow and released and detected in exhaled breath (20), indicating its potential to serve as a biomarker. Frontiers in Oncology | www.frontiersin.org 1 August 2019 | Volume 9 | Article 696

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