hydrogen as a means of controlling and preventing COVID-19

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Edited by: Paolo Montuschi, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Italy Reviewed by: Vaidehi Thanawala, Vir Biotechnology, Inc., United States Antonio Molino, University of Naples Federico II, Italy *Correspondence: Xiaobo Huang 659492700@qq.com Rongan Liu frog007_119@qq.com †These authors have contributed equally to this work Specialty section: This article was submitted to Respiratory Pharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology Received: 18 March 2020 Accepted: 21 August 2020 Published: 15 October 2020 Citation: Yang F, Yue R, Luo X, Liu R and Huang X (2020) Hydrogen: A Potential New Adjuvant Therapy for COVID-19 Patients. Front. Pharmacol. 11:543718. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.543718 Hydrogen: A Potential New Adjuvant Therapy for COVID-19 Patients Fuxun Yang†, Ruiming Yue†, Xiaoxiu Luo, Rongan Liu* and Xiaobo Huang* Department of Critical Care Medicine, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, China Hydrogen has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hormone-regulating, and apoptosis-resistance properties, among others. Based on a review of the research, the use of hydrogen might reduce the destructive cytokine storm and lung injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 during COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) in the early stage, stimulating ropy sputum drainage, and ultimately reducing the incidence of severe disease. Molecular hydrogen treatment has the potential to become a new adjuvant therapy for COVID-19, but its efficacy and safety require large clinical trials and further confirmation. Keywords: Hydrogen, COVID-19, therapy, cytokine storm, mucus INTRODUCTION Since the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan at the end of December 2019, it quickly became the sixth-largest public health emergency and a matter of international concern (Lai et al., 2020). Up to 11:00 on July 31, 2020, there were 17,328,002 confirmed cases in the world, and the cumulative number of deaths was 670,287 with an overall mortality rate of 3.8% (https://covid19.who.int/). Moreover, there is no specific antiviral drug or vaccine that could be used to prevent COVID-19. Huang et al. (2020) found that the plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, and TNF-a in severe or critical patients were higher than those in other patients. This is consistent with the pathological findings of Wang Fushen (Liu et al., 2020; Xu Z. et al., 2020). Therefore, Chen et al. propose that cytokine storm is one of the most important factors of the disease in critically ill patients (Chen et al., 2020). Currently, there is no specific drug that can be used to treat cytokine storms. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. In 2007, Ohsawa et al. (2007) published a paper in Nature outlining that the inhalation of 2% hydrogen could selectively eliminate hydroxyl radical (OH) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO−) and significantly improve cerebral ischemia- reperfusion injury in rats, which has initiated an upsurge in molecular biology research based on hydrogen. To date, the biological effects of hydrogen have been widely studied. Based on its biological effects, such as in anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and hormone regulatory, it has been established that hydrogen has protective effects against a variety of diseases. In particular, the small molecular properties of hydrogen ensure that it quickly reaches the alveoli, which suggests a unique advantage for lung diseases. Given the current epidemic and based on clinical experience, safety, operability, and simple clinical promotion, this review discusses the feasibility of hydrogen as a means of controlling and preventing COVID-19. HYPOTHESIS AND THEORY published: 15 October 2020 doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.543718 Frontiers in Pharmacology | www.frontiersin.org 1 October 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 543718

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