Hydrogen‐rich water reduces inflammatory responses

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Hydrogen‐rich water reduces inflammatory responses ( hydrogen‐rich-water-reduces-inflammatory-responses )

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www.nature.com/scientificreports open Hydrogen‐rich water reduces inflammatory responses and prevents apoptosis of peripheral blood cells in healthy adults: a randomized, double‐blind, controlled trial Minju Sim1, Chong‐Su Kim1, Woo‐Jeong Shon1, Young‐Kwan Lee2, Eun Young Choi2 & Dong‐Mi Shin1,3* The evidence for the beneficial effects of drinking hydrogen‐water (HW) is rare. We aimed to investigate the effects of HW consumption on oxidative stress and immune functions in healthy adults using systemic approaches of biochemical, cellular, and molecular nutrition. In a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study, healthy adults (20–59 y) consumed either 1.5 L/d of HW (n = 20) or plain water (PW, n = 18) for 4 weeks. The changes from baseline to the 4th week in serum biological antioxidant potential (BAP), derivatives of reactive oxygen, and 8‐Oxo‐2′‐deoxyguanosine did not differ between groups; however, in those aged ≥ 30 y, BAP increased greater in the HW group than the PW group. Apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was significantly less in the HW group. Flow cytometry analysis of CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, CD14+ and CD11b+ cells showed that the frequency of CD14+ cells decreased in the HW group. RNA‐sequencing analysis of PBMCs demonstrated that the transcriptomes of the HW group were clearly distinguished from those of the PW group. Most notably, transcriptional networks of inflammatory responses and NF‐κB signaling were significantly down‐regulated in the HW group. These finding suggest HW increases antioxidant capacity thereby reducing inflammatory responses in healthy adults. Oxidative stress indicates a state where excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelm the biological antioxi- dant capacity, leading to disruption of ROS homeostasis and cellular damage1. It is important for cells to main- tain moderate levels of ROS to perform normal physiological functions2. Excessive level of ROS are responsible for oxidative damage of DNA and lipids, which may lead to cellular death3. Also, oxidative stress may provoke inflammatory responses3,4 that can further enhance oxidative stress. As a result, oxidative stress can act to pre- cipitate chronic inflammation, with pathological conditions triggering various disorders including cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer5–8. There is no doubt that oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases. As a result, it has been of increasing interest to assess adjuvant effects of antioxidant agents in food on prevention and alleviation of these diseases. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration acknowledged hydrogen (H2) gas as food additives when used in drinking water or beverages and declared them to be generally recognized as safe. H2 can be a novel antioxidant because of its ability to selectively scavenge strong oxidants such as hydroxyl radical9. In models of ischemia/reperfusion injury, H2 prevented tissue damage and reduced infarct size10–12. In rat models of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, administration of H2 improved the memory function of rats and retarded the progression of disease13,14. Some clinical trials have 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. 3Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.*email: shindm@snu.ac.kr (2020) 10:12130 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68930-2 1 Vol.:(0123456789) Scientific RepoRtS |

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