Effects of Topical Hydrogen Purification on Skin Parameters

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Effects of Topical Hydrogen Purification on Skin Parameters ( effects-topical-hydrogen-purification-skin-parameters )

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Healthcare 2021, 9, 144 2 of 14 molecular hydrogen could selectively reduce reactive oxygen forms in vitro and exert antioxidant activity. Thanks to this discovery, hydrogen gas has been used in 300 diseases and have come to the forefront of therapeutic medical gas research. Clinical research has shown that hydrogen is an essential physiological regulator factor with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on cells and organs [15–19]. Hydrogen purification treatment uses alkaline water (electrochemically reduced water, ERP), which is rare in nature. However, with the chemical process of electrolysis, ERP can be produced immediately with a pH range between 8–10. It has both high alkaline and negative oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). The electrolysis process consists of passing a direct current between two electrodes (anode and cathode) separated by a semi-permeable membrane. During this process, the elements contained in the water break down into hydrogen ions H+, focusing on the cathode, and hydroxy ions OH-, which focus on the anode. Ionized alkaline water consists of H+ ions; it also contains alkaline elements, such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, hydrogen, and alkaline hydroxyl ions. Negative OH-ions form acid water, containing chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus, positive acid ions, and oxygen. The main factor responsible for the ORP of alkaline water is the active molecular hydrogen in alkaline water. Its concentration, depending on the concentration of alkaline water, ranges from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/L. Only the electrolysis processes (water ionizers) and hydrogenation (hydrogen generators) allow water production with active hydrogen ions, which is a natural and potent antioxidant. Currently, hydrogen cleansing is commonly used in cosmeceutical treatments to reduce free radicals and achieve anti-aging properties. Reactive oxygen species bind to hydrogen ions, forming water and pure oxygen. Through chemical processes, hydrogen purification neutralizes free radicals, and hydrogen water significantly reduces lubrication on the skin’s surface. In recent years, research has been conducted into the internal effects of alkaline water on patients affected by such problems as pyrosis, dysphoria, abdominal distension, and chronic diarrhea [20–24]. The research confirmed that the drinking of alkaline water for two weeks resulted in a significant health status improvement. However, little is known about alkaline water’s superficial effect on selected skin parameters in people suffering from acne vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, the present study explores, for the first time, the effectiveness of alkaline water in the treatment of acne vulgaris. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Participants in the Study This prospective case-control clinical study with follow-up analysis was conducted be- tween January 2020 and February 2020 at Opole Medical School in Poland. It was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Opole Medical School (KB/54/NOZ/2019), according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry database (No. ISRCTN 13842359). All participants signed written consent before the beginning of the study regarding participation in the study and the use of photographic images for publication. A photo was taken before treatment and 14 days after finishing all four treatment sessions (front view, left oblique, and right oblique). The subjects were informed that they could withdraw from the study at any time without giving a reason. Initially, 123 people participated in the study, but 35 individuals met the exclusion criteria, and another eight persons did not meet the inclusion criteria. After excluding 43 people from the study, the final study sample consisted of 80 women aged between 20 and 23 (M = 21.23; SD = 0.56). Group 1 included 40 young adult women with a higher sebum level and acne vulgaris (AV group). Participants were diagnosed with mild facial acne vulgaris using the Hellgren– Vincent Scale (HVS) to determine acne lesions’ severity. The HVS can accurately determine the number of skin lesions in the form of lumps, pustules, and blackheads. The AV group’s inclusion criteria were a young age, ranging between 18–25 years old, and severe acne, with a second degree in the HVS (n = 23, 76.67%) and a third-degree in the HVS

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