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Effects of hydrogen-rich water on aging periodontal tissues

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Effects of hydrogen-rich water on aging periodontal tissues ( effects-hydrogen-rich-water-aging-periodontal-tissues )

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between the control and the experimental groups with regard to food and water consumption, body weight or growth pattern during the experimental period. 8-OHdG levels of periodontal tissues and serum. Periodontal levels of mitochondrial 8-OHdG were higher in the control group than in the baseline group (p , 0.05), and lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p , 0.05) (Fig. 1A). In the control group, serum levels of 8-OHdG increased in an age-dependent manner (Fig. 1B). In the experimental group, serum levels of 8-OHdG did not change during aging. There were significant differences in serum 8-OHdG levels between the two groups at 10 and 16 months of age. Histopathological analysis. In the paraffin-embedded bucco- lingual sections, the linear distance between the cemento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone crest (mean 6 SD of 6 rats, mm) for the baseline, control and experimental groups was 627 6 104, 931 6 45 and 828 6 45, respectively. The values of the linear distance between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p , 0.05) (Fig. 2A and B). In the 3D image of the first molar, the level of alveolar bone loss for the medial root region, but not the distal root region, was greater in the control group than in the experimental group (Fig. 3). In addition, the numbers of TRAP- positive osteoclasts were lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p , 0.05) (Fig. 2C, D, and G). However, IL-1b protein expression was low in both the control and experimental groups (Fig. 2E and F), and there was no significant difference in the ratio of IL-1b-positive cells to total cells between the two groups (Fig. 2H). Bone mineral density of alveolar bone. Bone mineral densities (mean 6 SD of 6 rats, mg/cm3) of the control and the experimental groups were 1125 6 122 and 1175 6 36, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Gene expression in periodontal tissues. Gene expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC and IL-1b in periodontal tissues obtained from the experimental group was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (p , 0.05) (Table 1). In addition, gene expression of NF-kB was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p , 0.05). Discussion When hydrogen-rich water was placed into the stomach of rats, molecular hydrogen was detected at the level of several mM in the blood14. Molecular hydrogen is known to have anti-oxidative www.nature.com/scientificreports Figure 1 | The level of 8-OHdG in rat periodontal tissue (A) and serum (B). Means 6 SD of 6 rats. *Significant difference compared to the baseline group. {Significant difference compared to the control group. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS | 4 : 5534 | DOI: 10.1038/srep05534 2

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