Dietary antioxidants as a source of hydrogen peroxide

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Food Chemistry 278 (2019) 692–699 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Food Chemistry journal homepage: Dietary antioxidants as a source of hydrogen peroxide T Michalina Grzesika, Grzegorz Bartoszb, Ireneusz Stefaniukc, Monika Pichlaa, Jacek Namieśnikd, Izabela Sadowska-Bartosza,⁎ a Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Agriculture, University of Rzeszów, 4 Zelwerowicza Street, 35-601 Rzeszów, Poland b Department of Molecular Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Łódź, 141/143 Pomorska Street, 90-236 Łódź, Poland c Teaching and Research Center of Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, 1 Pigonia Street, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland d Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza Street, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland ARTICLE INFO Keywords: Antioxidant Autoxidation Ascorbic acid Hydrogen peroxide Polyphenols Tea Chemical compounds studied: N-Acetylcysteine, CID: 12035 Aminoguanidine hydrochloride, CID: 2734687 Apigenin, CID: 5280443 L-Ascorbic acid, CID: 54670067 Betanin, CID: 54600918 2,6-di-tert-Butyl-4-methylphenol, CID: 66609 tert-Buthylhydroquinone, CID: 16043 Buthylhydroxyanizole, CID: 24667 Caffeic acid, CID: 689043 β-Carotene, CID: 5280489 (+)-Catechin, CID: 9064 Chlorogenic acid, CID: 1794427 Citric acid, CID: 311 p-Coumaric acid, CID: 637542 Curcumin, CID: 969516 L-cysteine, CID: 5862 Daidzein, CID: 5281708 (−)-Epicatechin, CID: 72276 (−)-Epicatechin gallate, CID: 107905 (−)-Epigallocatechin, CID: 72277 (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate, CID: 65064 Ethoxyquin, CID: 3293 trans-Ferulic acid, CID: 445858 Gallic acid, CID: 370 Genistein, CID: 5280961 Gentisic acid, CID: 3469 L-Glutathione, CID: 124886 ABSTRACT Studies of 54 antioxidants revealed that 27 of them, mainly polyphenols, generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) when added to Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), other media used for culture of mammalian and yeast cells and phosphate-buffered saline. The most active antioxidants were: propyl gallate (PG), (−)-epi- gallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and quercetin (Q). Chelex treatment and iron chelators decreased H2O2 generation suggesting that transition metal ions catalyze antioxidant autoxidation and H2O2 production. Green tea also generated H2O2; tea prepared on tap water generated significantly more H2O2 than tea prepared on deionized water. Ascorbic acid decreased H2O2 production although it generated H2O2 itself, in the absence of other additives. Lemon added to the tea significantly reduced generation of H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide generated in the medium contributed to the cytotoxicity of PG, EGCG and Q to human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells, since catalase increased the survival of the cells subjected to these compounds in vitro. Abbreviations: ABTS%, 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical; ARE, Antioxidant Response Element; BHA, butylated hydroxyanisole; C, (+)-catechin; DETAPA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid; DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle's Medium; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; EGC, (−)-epigallocatechin; EGCG, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; MEM, Eagle’s Minimal Essential Medium; ESR, Electron Spin Resonance; NBT, Nitro Blue Tetrazolium; PBS, Phosphate-buffered saline; PG, Propyl Gallate; Q, quercetin; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SM, Yeast synthetic Minimal Medium; SOD, superoxide dismutase; YNB, Yeast Nitrogen Base; YPD, Yeast Peptone Dextrose; TAC, Total Antioxidant Capacity; TBHQ, tert-Butylhydroquinone; O2%− , superoxide radical anion ⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: (I. Sadowska-Bartosz). Received 6 September 2018; Received in revised form 19 November 2018; Accepted 22 November 2018 Available online 30 November 2018 0308-8146/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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