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Text from PDF Page: 002Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9731 2 of 11 Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, x 2 of 11 ionrsctantainsetoaunstlayndeoisuasplpyedairswaphpeenaorpwehneingotphenpiancgktahgeinpgaockf amgainskgpoafcmksas[1k0p].aIcnksth[i1s0s]t.uIdnyt,hwisespturodpyo,swede aprnoopvoeslehdydarnoogvenelwhaytderomgeanskwpatcekrcmonasikstpinagckofchoyndsirsotginegn ogfenheyrdatriognepnogwedneratniodngpelo-wtydpereamnudlsgioenl‐. Wtyphenemiuxilnsigonth.eWpohwendemrwixitnhgththeempuolwsidoenr,hwigithh-ctohneceenmtrualtseidonh,ydhriogghe‐cnognacseinstcroantetdinuhoyudsrloyggeenegrasteids fcornstienvueoraulsmlyingeuntesratoteedfffeocrtisveevleyrraelmoinvuetoexsytgoeenffreacdtivcealys orenmthoeveskoixny. gen radicals on the skin. 2. Results 2. Results 2.1. Characterization of Hydrogen Generation Powder Samples 2.1. Characterization of Hydrogen Generation Powder Samples Figure 1 shows the XRD patterns of the hydrogen generation powder samples heated in an H2 Figure 1 shows the XRD patterns of the hydrogen generation powder samples heated in an H2 atmosphere at various temperatures. The samples were prepared by heating in an H2 atmosphere atmosphere at various temperatures. The samples were prepared by heating in an H2 atmosphere at at 400, 500, 600, and 700 ◦C, respectively (Zn-400, Zn-500, Zn-600, and Zn-700). All the samples 400, 500, 600, and 700 °C, respectively (Zn‐400, Zn‐500, Zn‐600, and Zn‐700). All the samples exhibited exhibited a zincite (PDF 70-2551) crystalline structure without other phases, with the XRD characteristic a zincite (PDF 70‐2551) crystalline structure without other phases, with the XRD characteristic peaks peaks at 31.84◦, 34.52◦, 36.66◦, 47.63◦, 56.71◦, and 62.96◦, corresponding to the (100), (002), (101), at 31.84°, 34.52°, 36.66°, 47.63°, 56.71°, and 62.96°, corresponding to the (100), (002), (101), (102), (110), (102), (110), and (103) planes, planes, respectively. Despite the hydrogen atmosphere heating, and (103) planes, planes, respectively. Despite the hydrogen atmosphere heating, no metallic Zn no metallic Zn phase was formed. The average crystallite sizes of the Zn-400, Zn-500, Zn-600, phase was formed. The average crystallite sizes of the Zn‐400, Zn‐500, Zn‐600, and Zn‐700 samples, and Zn-700 samples, calculated by the Scherrer equation, were 12.5, 20.2, 27.2, and 30.9 nm, respectively. calculated by the Scherrer equation, were 12.5, 20.2, 27.2, and 30.9 nm, respectively. Although, with Although, with increasing heating temperature, the crystallite size of the heated samples increased, increasing heating temperature, the crystallite size of the heated samples increased, all the samples all the samples were nano-sized powder. were nano‐sized powder. Figure 1. XRD patterns of the as‐-prepared hydrogen generation powder samples. Figure 2 shows the photo images of the hydrogen generation powder samples heated at various temperatures. The Zn‐-400, Zn‐-500, and Zn‐-600 samples were light yellow whereas the Zn‐-700 sample was light gray.. In general, pure ZnO with a band gap of 3.37 eV is white, whereas all the prepared samples were yellow or gray.. Thus, the change in color in the samples heated in H2 atmosphere 2 indicates thegeeneerraattiioonnooffddefeefcetctorodr odpoipnignglevlevlselisnitnhethbeanbdangdapg,afpo,rmfoirnmgiZnngOZ1n−xO. The.nTahrreownabrraonwd 1−x bganpdmgiagphtmailglohwtaelloecwtroenlesctfronmsftrhoemvathlencvealbenancedbtaonbdetoelebveaeteledvaintetodtihnetoctohneducocntidonucbtiaondb.aTnhde. Tabhseoarbsaonrcbeanocfebolufebluigehltigihnttihnetheydhyrodgroengegnegnenraetriaotnionpopwowdedresrasmamplpelsesmmigighhttreressuultltiintthereffllected coloryelloworgray.IIngenerrall,,paarrttiaiallylyrreedduucceeddZZnnOO1−x hahsabsebeenepnrpepreapreadrebdybhyehaetiantginZgnZmnemtaeltatl 1−x ◦ 1−x a9t5095°0C Cinitnhtehperpersesnecneceofocfacrabrobnonororcacrabrbononmmoonnooxxididee[1.].HHoowweevveer,r,inintthiisssttudy, the nano-‐sized ZnO1−x ssaampplelessfoforrththeehhyyddrrooggeennggeenneerraattioionnweerreeprreepaarredattrrellattiivellyllowttemperattures.. Figure 2. Photo images of the hydrogen generation powder samples prepared with zinc. Carbonate as a precursor at 400, 500, 600, and 700 °C in H2 atmosphere.
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