Chempocalypse Now Chromatography

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Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 18 – Chromatography Page 1 Chapter 18 – Chromatography Topics A7 and A10 from the IB HL Chemistry Curriculum A7 Chromatography (2 Hours) Assessment Statement A.7.1 State the reasons for using chromatography. Obj Teacher’s Notes 1 The quantitative and quantitative aspects of chromatography should be outlined. 3 2 Obj Teacher’s Notes 2 3 A.7.2 Explain that all chromatographic techniques involve adsorption on a stationary phase and partition between a stationary phase and a mobile phase. A.7.3 Outline the use of paper chromatography, thin- layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. Components in a mixture have different tendencies to adsorb onto a surface or dissolve in a solvent. This provides a means of separating the components of a mixture. An outline of the operation for each technique will be assessed. This should include an understanding and calculation of Rf values were relevant. Students should be aware that, in some instances, paper chromatograms may need to be developed, for example, in the separation of sugars. A10 Chromatography (2 Hours) Assessment Statement A.10.1 Describe the techniques of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A.10.2 Deduce which chromatographic technique is most appropriate for separating the components in a particular mixture. An outline of the operation for each technique will be assessed. This should include an understanding of Rf value and its dependence on other factors where relevant. Aim 8: HPLC can identify compounds that are temperature sensitive. Uses include: analysis of oil; alcoholic beverages; antioxidants, sugars, and vitamins in foods; pharmaceuticals; polymers; biochemical and biotechnology research; and quality control of insecticides and herbicides. GLC can identify compounds that can vaporize without decomposing. Uses include: analysis of urine samples from athletes for drugs, underground mine gases, and blood alcohol levels. Chromatography Chromatography is a technique for separating and identifying the components of a mixture. Many different forms of chromatography are used but they all work on the same principle. The components of the mixture have different affinities for two phases: a stationary phase and a mobile phase and so are separated as the mobile phase moves through the stationary phase. A component which has a strong attraction for the mobile phase will move quickly, whereas a component with a strong attraction for the stationary phase will be held back. If the stationary and mobile phases are carefully chosen, the different components will move at different speeds and so be separated effectively. Polar compounds, for example, are more likely to move quickly when the mobile phase is a polar solvent. Two main types of chromatography There are two main types of chromatography: partition and adsorption chromatography.

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