The use of cannabinoids in animals and therapeutic implications for veterinary medicine: a review

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Veterinarni Medicina, 61, 2016 (3): 111–122 Review Article doi: 10.17221/8762-VETMED The use of cannabinoids in animals and therapeutic implications for veterinary medicine: a review L. Landa1, A. Sulcova2, P. Gbelec3 1Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic 2Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic 3Veterinary Hospital and Ambulance AA Vet, Prague, Czech Republic ABSTRACT: Cannabinoids/medical marijuana and their possible therapeutic use have received increased atten- tion in human medicine during the last years. This increased attention is also an issue for veterinarians because particularly companion animal owners now show an increased interest in the use of these compounds in veteri- nary medicine. This review sets out to comprehensively summarise well known facts concerning properties of cannabinoids, their mechanisms of action, role of cannabinoid receptors and their classification. It outlines the main pharmacological effects of cannabinoids in laboratory rodents and it also discusses examples of possible beneficial use in other animal species (ferrets, cats, dogs, monkeys) that have been reported in the scientific lit- erature. Finally, the article deals with the prospective use of cannabinoids in veterinary medicine. We have not intended to review the topic of cannabinoids in an exhaustive manner; rather, our aim was to provide both the scientific community and clinical veterinarians with a brief, concise and understandable overview of the use of cannabinoids in veterinary medicine. Keywords: cannabinoids; medical marijuana; laboratory animals; companion animals; veterinary medicine Abbreviations AEA = anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, CB1, 2 receptor agonist), 2-AG = 2-arachidonoylglycerol (CB1 receptor agonist), 2-AGE = 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether (noladin ether, CB1 receptor agonist), AM 251 = N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (synthetic CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist), CB1 = cannabinoid receptor type 1, CB2 = cannabinoid receptor type 2, CP-55,940 = (–)-cis-3-[2-Hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol (mixed CB1, 2 receptor agonist), FAAH = fatty acid amide hydrolase, GABA = gamma-amino butyric acid, GPR18 = G-protein coupled receptor 18, GPR55 = G protein-coupled receptor 55, GPR119 = G protein-coupled receptor 119, HU-210 = (6aR)-trans-3-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-1-hydroxy-6,6-dimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d] pyran-9-methanol (synthetic mixed CB1, 2 receptor agonist), HU-308 = [(1R,2R,5R)-2-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-meth- yloctan-2-yl)phenyl]-7,7-dimethyl-4-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-enyl] methanol (highly selective CB2 receptor agonist), IgE = immunoglobulin E, MGL = monoacylglycerol lipase, NADA = N-arachidonoyl dopamine (CB1 receptor agonist), PEA = palmitoylethanolamide, SR144528 = N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo [2.2.1]heptan2-yl]-5-(4- chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-[(4-methylphenyl)methyl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (CB2 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist), THC = delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (mixed CB1, 2 receptor agonist), TRPV1 = transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, WIN 55,212-2 = (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone (synthetic CB1, 2 receptor agonist) This work was supported by the project CEITEC – Central European Institute of Technology. from European Regional Development Fund (Grant No. CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068). 111

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