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Chemistry and Analysis of Phytocannabinoids and Other Cannabis Constituents

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Chemistry and Analysis of Phytocannabinoids and Other Cannabis Constituents ( chemistry-and-analysis-phytocannabinoids-and-other-cannabis- )

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Chemistry of Cannabis Constituents 17 Chapter 2 Chemistry and Analysis of Phytocannabinoids and Other Cannabis Constituents Rudolf Brenneisen 1. THE CHEMISTRY OF PHYTOCANNABINOIDS AND NONCANNABINOID-TYPE CONSTITUENTS 1.1. Phytocannabinoids 1.1.1. Introduction The Cannabis plant and its products consist of an enormous variety of chemi- cals. Some of the 483 compounds identified are unique to Cannabis, for example, the more than 60 cannabinoids, whereas the terpenes, with about 140 members forming the most abundant class, are widespread in the plant kingdom. The term “cannab- inoids” represents a group of C21 terpenophenolic compounds found until now uniquely in Cannabis sativa L. (1). As a consequence of the development of synthetic cannab- inoids (e.g., nabilone [2], HU-211 [dexanabinol; ref. {3}, or ajulemic acid [CT-3; ref. 4]) and the discovery of the chemically different endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands (“endocannabinoids,” e.g., anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol) (5,6), the term “phytocannabinoids” was proposed for these particular Cannabis constituents (7). 1.1.2. Chemistry and Classification So far, 66 cannabinoids have been identified. They are divided into 10 subclasses (8–10) (see Table 1). From: Forensic Science and Medicine: Marijuana and the Cannabinoids Edited by: M. A. ElSohly © Humana Press Inc., Totowa, New Jersey 17

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