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Cannabidiol: an overview of some chemical and pharmacological aspects

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Cannabidiol: an overview of some chemical and pharmacological aspects ( cannabidiol-an-overview-some-chemical-and-pharmacological-as )

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Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 121 (2002) 35􏰃/43 Review Cannabidiol: an overview of some chemical and pharmacological aspects. Part I: chemical aspects Raphael Mechoulam 􏰁, Lum ́ır Hanusˇ Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, Medical Faculty, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Ein Kerem Campus, 91120 Jerusalem, Israel Received 15 June 2002; accepted 20 August 2002 Abstract Over the last few years considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of Cannabis. In Part I of this review we present a condensed survey of the chemistry of CBD; in Part II, to be published later, we shall discuss the anti-convulsive, anti-anxiety, anti-psychotic, anti-nausea and anti-rheumatoid arthritic properties of CBD. CBD does not bind to the known cannabinoid receptors and its mechanism of action is yet unknown. In Part II we shall also present evidence that it is conceivable that, in part at least, its effects are due to its recently discovered inhibition of anandamide uptake and hydrolysis and to its anti-oxidative effect. # 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Cannabidiol; Chemical and pharmacological aspects; Cannabis www.elsevier.com/locate/chemphyslip 1. Introduction Since the isolation and elucidation of the structure of the main active constituent of mar- ijuana, D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; Gaoni and Mechoulam, 1964) an enormous number of published articles have dealt with its chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology and clinical effects. However, considerable anecdotal evidence has emerged that the effects of marijuana are not due to THC alone (Grinspoon and Bakalar, 1997). At 􏰁 Corresponding author. Tel.: 􏰂/972-2-675-8634; fax: 􏰂/972- 2-675-7076 E-mail address: mechou@cc.huji.ac.il (R. Mechoulam). least one constituent, cannabidiol (CBD) was found to cause a plethora of pharmacological effects, some of which may modify the metabolism and effects of THC (see for example Jaeger et al., 1996; Karniol et al., 1974). In the present overview we shall try to cover some aspects of CBD chemistry and its pharma- cological and clinical effects. It is by no means exhaustive. The effects of CBD in numerous systems have been investigated and this short review is not intended to be of encyclopedic nature, but mostly expresses the areas of interest of the authors. The known interactions between THC and CBD are not presented. They require a thorough, separate critical evaluation of the lit- erature, mostly of the 1970’s and 1980’s, based on 0009-3084/02/$ - see front matter # 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0009-3084(02)00144-5

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