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BIODIVERSITY ISSUES AND APPROACHES

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BIODIVERSITY ISSUES AND APPROACHES ( biodiversity-issues-and-approaches )

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BIODIVERSITY ISSUES AND APPROACHES FOR REDD+ Southeast Asia Regional Training Workshop on Social and Environmental Soundness of REDD+. Bangkok, November 2012 Biodiversity and REDD+ - evolution of understanding Initial assumptions made about the impact of efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forests were largely positive: ‘effective actions to reduce deforestation could constitute a unique opportunity for biodiversity protection’ (CBD Decision VIII/30). Six years on, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) now acknowledges that REDD+ offers unprecedented ‘potential to simultaneously address the biodiversity crisis and climate change ...while poorly designed REDD+ could damage biodiversity and in threaten provision of ecosystem services’ (SCDB 2011). Opportunities and risks The main generic opportunities for, and risks to, biodiversity presented by REDD+ can be summarized as: OPPORTUNITY RISK Promotion of sustainable forest management in production Displacement of deforestation and forest degradation to forests, through such approaches as reduced impact logging areas of lower carbon value and high biodiversity value or payments for ecosystem services (PES) Improved monitoring and reporting systems needed to assess Indirect risks from social inequities, e.g. loss of traditional the impact of REDD+ on biodiversity, demonstrate territories and restriction of rights of local people; lack of safeguard compliance and obtain results-based financing tangible livelihood benefits or equitable benefit sharing International policy commitments on REDD+ opportunities and risks to biodiversity Acknowledging such opportunities and risks, further design considerations for the international REDD+ mechanism were safeguarded in the Cancun Agreements (UNFCCC Decision 1/CP.16). Concurrent to the agreement on the safeguards, was the adoption of a new Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, to operationalize the CBD from 2011 to 2020, in addition to 20 headline targets to be met by 2020. Five of these ‘Aichi Biodiversity Targets’ are directly relevant to REDD+. Developing countries pursuing elaboration of national REDD+ programmes, all of which are signatories to the CBD, Improved in situ conservation of forest biodiversity, particularly through improved protected area (PA) management and forest landscape restoration (FLR) Conversion of natural forests to plantations and other land uses of low biodiversity value and low ecological resilience Promotion of forest governance improvements, through mechanisms such as more devolved forestland tenure and participatory management decision making processes Afforestation in areas (non-forest ecosystems) of high biodiversity value Adapted from: Miles & Dickson (2010); SCBD (2011) Adapted from: UNEP/CBD/WS-REDD/1/3 Aichi Biodiversity Targets relevant to REDD+ 5 - rate of loss...forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero...degradation and fragmentation significantly reduced 7 - areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity 11 - at least 17 per cent of terrestrial...areas..., especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through... systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures 14 - ecosystems that provide essential services...are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities... 15 - ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems... Cancun safeguards relevant to biodiversity • [REDD+ activities] complement or are consistent with the objectives of national forest programmes and relevant international conventions and agreements • [REDD+ activities are] consistent with the conservation of natural forests and biological diversity, ensuring that actions...are not used for the conversion of natural forests, but are instead used to incentivize the protection and conservation of natural forests... • Actions to address the risks of [emissions reductions and enhanced removals] reversals • Actions to reduce displacement of emissions

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